Smart Signals Overview

Fingerprint is not just an identity platform but also helps fight fraud by providing actionable device intelligence called Smart Signals. Read on to get basic understanding of individual Smart Signal components and its applications.

Setup and Usage

Typical integration into a project consists of those steps:

  • Add the JavaScript agent on the frontend part of your web application. If you are an existing customer and already deployed Fingerprint, you can skip this step.
  • Get the requestId from the JavaScript agent response and pass it to your server.
  • Call GET /events endpoint from your server-side environment to retrieve the Smart Signals in the API response.
  • Use the information about fraud in your business logic.

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Availability

Because Smart Signals are focused on fraud detection, we only made them available through our Server API and Webhooks so we can ensure that you receive those results unaltered.

Smart Signals are available in our Pro Plus and Enterprise plans. If you are an Enterprise plan customer interested in one or more of these signals, then please contact our support team to enable them for you. Signing up for an Enterprise plan does not automatically enable these signals.

Suspect Score

iOS Android BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Suspect Score combines all Smart Signals into a weighted integer value based on their global probability. You can read more about the weights and the mechanisms behind Suspect Score in a dedicated section.

"suspectScore": {
  "data": {
    "result": 0
  }
}

Browser Smart Signals

Each individual Smart Signal contributes with a unique piece of information about the device. Most of our Smart Signals are independent from the source of the request (browser vs. native mobile application) but there are some signals that are not available if the data was collected through our official mobile SDKs.

See the tags under each title or our Smart Signals Cheat Sheet to determine whether you should expect to see the Smart Signal output in Server API and Webhooks based on its source.

Browser Bot Detection

BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Get information about good and bad bots allowing to block or filter them from your regular traffic and stop automated abuse attempts.

The bot.result field contains one of notDetected, bad or good values where

  • notDetected means that we haven't detected a bot and the payload should belong to a regular visitor
  • good indicates that the bot is a well-known web crawler or other search engine bot
  • bad is an automated tool that doesn't have legitimate uses and assumes fraudulent activity
"botd": {
  "data": {
    "bot": {
      "result": "notDetected"
    },
    "url": "https://example.com/",
    "ip": "94.142.239.124",
    "time": "2023-08-29T21:48:17.351Z",
    "userAgent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Macintosh; Intel Mac OS X 10_15_7) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/116.0.0.0 Safari/537.36",
    "requestId": "1693345697334.YKOdT5"
  }
}

Browser Incognito Detection

BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Detects incognito mode in major browsers. It provides additional information about the visitor that might suggest they are trying to hide their identity.

"incognito": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

IP Geolocation

iOS Android BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Provides information about the physical location of the originating IP address.

We deploy several mechanisms to detect the IP address of the original client which allows us to correctly determine visitor's location, even when using anonymizing tools. The geolocation field then shows the estimated physical location of the client.

The asn and datacenter field can be used to group ranges of IP addresses that belong to the same owner to apply protection rules against a whole block of IP addresses. They could also indicate that the visitor connects through an intermediate server instead of connecting through an ISP directly.

"ipInfo": {
  "data": {
    "v4": {
      "address": "94.142.239.124",
      "geolocation": {
        "accuracyRadius": 20,
        "latitude": 50.05,
        "longitude": 14.4,
        "postalCode": "150 00",
        "timezone": "Europe/Prague",
        "city": {
          "name": "Prague"
        },
        "country": {
          "code": "CZ",
          "name": "Czechia"
        },
        "continent": {
          "code": "EU",
          "name": "Europe"
        },
        "subdivisions": [
          {
            "isoCode": "10",
            "name": "Prague"
          }
        ]
      },
      "asn": {
        "asn": "7922",
        "name": "COMCAST-7922",
        "network": "73.136.0.0/13"
      },
      "datacenter": {
        "result": true,
        "name": "DediPath"
      }
    },
    "v6": {
      "address": "::ffff:5e8e:ef7c",
      "geolocation": {
        "accuracyRadius": 20,
        "latitude": 50.05,
        "longitude": 14.4,
        "postalCode": "150 00",
        "timezone": "Europe/Prague",
        "city": {
          "name": "Prague"
        },
        "country": {
          "code": "CZ",
          "name": "Czechia"
        },
        "continent": {
          "code": "EU",
          "name": "Europe"
        },
        "subdivisions": [
          {
            "isoCode": "10",
            "name": "Prague"
          }
        ]
      },
      "asn": {
        "asn": "7922",
        "name": "COMCAST-7922",
        "network": "::ffff:5e8e:ef7c/110"
      },
      "datacenter": {
        "result": true,
        "name": "DediPath"
      }
    }
  }
}

VPN Detection

iOS Android BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Fingerprint's VPN detection is capable of detecting whether the user is in a different timezone compared to their originating IP address (timezoneMismatch field). It can also provide information about whether an IP address has been known to belong to one of the public VPN providers through the publicVPN field.

For browsers, the result is true if either the publicVPN or timezoneMismatch method is true.

For mobile devices, other additional methods (auxiliaryMobile) are also used to detect the presence of a VPN. For these devices, the result is true if either of the three listed methods is true.

"vpn": {
  "data": {
    "result": false,
    "originTimezone": "Europe/Prague",
    "methods": {
      "timezoneMismatch": false,
      "publicVPN": false,
      "auxiliaryMobile": false
    }
}

Browser Tamper Detection

BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

There are very simple techniques to confuse less sophisticated fingerprinting algorithms through User Agent spoofing or trying to change the output of selected signals that are collected from the browser.

While our visitorID remains stable in those cases, tampering detection helps detect this behavior and flag visitors that have tried applying such techniques by comparing their browser signature to our statistical model.

The output of this model is captured as anomalyScore, a number indicating how improbable is the signature of the visitor's browser. Values close to 1 signify highly anomalous browsers and we consider anything above the threshold of 0.5 to be actionable (the result field conveniently captures that fact).

"tampering": {
  "data": {
    "result": false,
    "anomalyScore": 0
  }
}

Virtual Machine Detection

BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Identifies whether the request came from a virtual machine.

"virtualMachine": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Privacy-Focused Settings

BrowserPro Plus Enterprise

Firefox, Brave, and other privacy focused browsers actively fight fingerprinting and expose user settings that have the ability to randomize and obfuscate signal output. Privacy-focused settings Smart Signal detects if those settings are enabled and reports it.

"privacySettings": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

IP Blocklist Matching

iOS Android BrowserEnterprise

Block IP addresses based on their presence in different public and proprietary blocklists.

The feature uses a combination of our and vendor IP databases to determine whether

  • The IP address is a known tor exit node (tor payload)
  • The IP address has been part of a network attack or email spam attack (ipBlocklist.details payload)
  • The IP address belongs to a public proxy provider (proxy payload)

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tor and proxy payloads do not utilize active Tor or proxy detection mechanisms.

"ipBlocklist": {
  "data": {
    "result": false,
    "details": {
      "emailSpam": false,
      "attackSource": false
    }
  }
}
"tor": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}
"proxy": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

High-Activity Device

iOS Android BrowserEnterprise

High-Activity Device searches for spikes in traffic connected to a single visitorID. It computes the amount of visits in the past 24 hours for each visitorID every five minutes and reports data.result as true if the number of visits for the past 24 hours surpasses a threshold.

High-Activity Device Threshold

The threshold is calculated for each customer separately and is determined through a normal traffic distribution. If the returned visitorID does more requests than 98% of other daily visitors, the High-Activity Smart Signal returns a positive result. If the traffic doesn't pass the threshold, data.result returns false and dailyVisits field isn't provided.

"highActivity": {
  "data": {
    "result": true,
    "dailyVisits": 42
  }
}
"highActivity": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Raw Device Attributes

BrowserEnterprise

Raw Device Attributes exposes additional data points we normally collect through our JavaScript agent.

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Format Stability

Raw Device Attributes contents can change at any time in the future (includes complete scoped field removal) and we advise against setting dependencies on concrete field names inside of the data field.

"rawDeviceAttributes": {
  "data": {
    "<field_name>": {
      "value": 127
    }
}

Smart Signals for mobile devices

The smart signals listed below are applicable only to mobile devices. These signals provide valuable intelligence about the integrity of the device as well as the app. These smart signals are available as part of our Pro Plus and Enterprise plans. If you are interested in one or more of these signals, then please contact our support team to enable them for you.

When your app is integrated with Fingerprint (using either our native mobile SDKs or our multi-platform SDKs), you will start receiving these signals as part of our Server API and/or Webhooks responses.

Android Emulator Detection

AndroidPro Plus Enterprise

Prevent spam and protect against nefarious Android emulator farms by ensuring the request is coming from a physical device. To detect emulators, several additional device attributes have to be collected and this increases the time to get a visitorId. The latency can be anywhere between 300 and 1500ms.

"emulator": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Android Tamper Detection

AndroidPro Plus Enterprise

Ensure a safe Android mobile application environment by detecting rooted devices.

"rootApps": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Cloned App Detection

AndroidPro Plus Enterprise

Identify if a request is coming from a cloned application. Making multiple clones of an app on the same device can be used to abuse promotions and get around app restrictions. (Android only)

"clonedApp": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Factory Reset Detection

iOS AndroidPro Plus Enterprise

Resetting a mobile device to default factory settings is a common technique that fraudsters use to pose their device as a new device and thus evade fraud detection mechanisms. With this smart signal, you will know the exact time a device was factory reset.

"factoryReset": {
  "data": {
    "time": "1970-01-01T00:00:00Z",
    "timestamp": 0
  }
}

Frida Detection

iOS Android Pro Plus Enterprise

In simple terms, app hooking is a process where the behavior of a mobile app is changed by intercepting the app at runtime. Frida is a dynamic instrumentation toolkit that several tech-savvy fraudsters use to spoof an app at runtime and change its behavior. With this smart signal, you will know if Frida is being used to dynamically instrument the app.

"frida": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Geolocation Spoofing Detection

iOS Android Pro Plus Enterprise

Fraudsters spoof the location of their mobile devices to fool fraud detection systems. With this smart signal, you will know if the location of the mobile device has been spoofed or not. For iOS only, this signal requires the host app to be granted Location Permission.

"locationSpoofing": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

Jailbroken Device Detection

iOSPro Plus Enterprise

An iPhone or an iPad is labeled jailbroken when unauthorized modifications are made to the underlying operating system (iOS). Jailbreaking weakens a device’s built-in security features and makes it easy to steal sensitive information stored on the device. See Unauthorized modification of iOS for more information.

Fraudsters employ phishing mechanisms to trick users into installing jailbreak software on their devices and then take control of their devices. Your app (e.g. banking, e-commerce, etc) will not be able to distinguish the transactions made using jailbroken devices from those made using genuine devices. Honoring these fraudulent transactions will lead to financial losses (caused by chargeback expenses, account takeover, etc) and loss of trust among your customers.

The Jailbroken Smart Signal will help you detect if your app is being used from an iPhone/iPad that has been jailbroken and enable you to proactively act upon it.

"jailbroken": {
  "data": {
    "result": false
  }
}

What’s Next

Check out our Suspect Score if you need to integrate Smart Signals faster